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Types of Protection

DIY Projects - Ingress protection

IP Ratings Explained

IP ratings are used where water is present near the light source. IP ratings ("Ingress Protection") are also used in conjuction with zones.

All IP ratings consist of two digits - the first value is between 0 & 6, the second takes a value between 0 & 8.

The first digit represents protection against foreign bodies (dust, tools, fingers etc.)

The second digit represents protection against ingress of liquids.

Here is a table listing all the possible combinations of IP ratings along with a short description.

  Foreign Bodies
First Digit
Second Digit
No protection 0 No protection
Protected against solid objects greater than 50mm (e.g. accidental touch by hands) 1 Protection against vertically falling drops of water (e.g.condensation)
Protected against solid objects up to 12mm (e.g. fingers) 2 Protection against direct sprays of water up to 15 degrees from vertical
Protected against solid objects greater than 2.5mm (e.g. tools and wires) 3 Protection against direct sprays of water up to 60 degrees from vertical
Protected against solid objects greater than 1mm (e.g. small tools and wires) 4 Protection against water sprayed from all directions - limited ingress permitted
Protected against dust, limited ingress (e.g. no harmful deposit) 5 Protected against low pressure jets of water from all directions - limited ingress permitted
Totally protected against dust 6 Protected against high pressure jets of water (use on ship deck) - limited ingress permitted
  7 Protected against the effects of immersion between 15cm and 1m
  8 Protected against long periods of immersion under pressure


Common IP Ratings & Placement
Zone 0 - Inside the bath or shower. Any fittings used here must be SELV (max. 12v) and have a minimum rating of IP67.

Zone 1 - Above the bath or shower to a height of 2.25m. IP56 Recommended.

Zone 2 - The area stretching to 0.6m outside the bath or shower and above the bath or shower if over 2.25m. IP44 Recommended.

Zone 3 - IP Rating not essential.


DIY Projects - Double Insulated

Double Insulation

A square inside a square means the appliance has double or reinforced insulation, to prevent a dangerous voltage reaching any exposed conductive parts in the event of a fault. This means that any equipment that is double insulated must not have an earth, as this could impair the protection of the double insulation. Use 2 core flex for double insulated appliances.

Double insulated symbol


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